Towards Graph Foundation Models for Personalization

Abstract

In the realm of personalization, integrating diverse information sources such as consumption signals and content-based representations is becoming increasingly critical to build state-of-the-art solutions. In this regard, two of the biggest trends in research around this subject are Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and Foundation Models (FMs). While GNNs emerged as a popular solution in industry for powering personalization at scale, FMs have only recently caught attention for their promising performance in personalization tasks like ranking and retrieval. In this paper, we present a graph-based foundation modeling approach tailored to personalization. Central to this approach is a Heterogeneous GNN (HGNN) designed to capture multi-hop content and consumption relationships across a range of recommendable item types. To ensure the generality required from a Foundation Model, we employ a Large Language Model (LLM) text-based featurization of nodes that accommodates all item types, and construct the graph using co-interaction signals, which inherently transcend content specificity. To facilitate practical generalization, we further couple the HGNN with an adaptation mechanism based on a two-tower (2T) architecture, which also operates agnostically to content type. This multi-stage approach ensures high scalability; while the HGNN produces general purpose embeddings, the 2T component models in a continuous space the sheer size of user-item interaction data. Our comprehensive approach has been rigorously tested and proven effective in delivering recommendations across a diverse array of products within a real-world, industrial audio streaming platform.

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